1. How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces?  Kramer et al. A systematic review. BMC Infectious Diseases 6:130. 2006.
  2. The Secret Life of Germs. P Tierno. Atria Books: New York, NY, USA.  2001.
  3. Antimicrobial Copper is the only solid metal surface material to have efficacy data3 independently verified through the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registration which supports the claim to continuously kill more than 99.9% of the bacteria that cause HCAIs within two hours of contact. Organisms tested are MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli O157:H7 and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.
    Antimicrobial Regulatory Efficacy Testing of Solid Copper Alloy Surfaces in the USA. H T Michels and D G Anderson, pp 185-190, Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine: Vol 10, Eds Ph Collery, I Maymard, T Theophanides, L Khassanova, T Collery. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris © 2008
  4. Effects of temperature and humidity on the efficacy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus challenged antimicrobial materials containing silver and copper. H T Michels, J O Noyce and C W Keevil, Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49 (2009) 191-195.

  5. Role of copper in reducing hospital environment contamination. A L Casey, D Adams, T J Karpanen, P A Lambert, B D Cookson, P Nightingale, L Miruszenko, R Shillam, P Christian and T S J Elliott, J Hosp Infect (2009).

  6. Sustained Reduction of Microbial Burden on Common Hospital Surfaces through Introduction of Copper. Michael G Schmidt, Hubert H Attaway, Peter A Sharpe, Joseph John Jr, Kent A Sepkowitz, Andrew Morgan, Sarah E Fairey, Susan Singh, Lisa L Steed, J Robert Cantey, Katherine D Freeman, Harold T Michels and Cassandra D Salgado. J Clin Microbiol July 2012 vol. 50 no. 7-2217-2223. Published ahead of print 2 May 2012, doi: 10.1128/JCM.01032-12.

  7. Copper Surfaces Reduce the Rate of Healthcare-Acquired Infections in the Intensive Care Unit. Cassandra D Salgado, MD; Kent A Sepkowitz, MD; Joseph F John, MD; J Robert Cantey, MD; Hubert H Attaway, MS; Katherine D Freeman, Dr PH; Peter A Sharpe, MBA; Harold T Michels, PhD; Michael G Schmidt, PhD. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology , Vol. 34, No. 5, Special Topic Issue: The Role of the Environment in Infection Prevention (May 2013), pp. 479-486.

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